Research your culture topic assigned to you. Explain
about the health practice, family dynamic, religious beliefs and anything else interesting that may affect health care:
A brief overview of the culture (religion, geography, government, gender roles, family roles, values, traditions)
Which of these are important specifically to you? Why?
What do you consider different about your cultural beliefs and practices compared to those of your research topic?
How can the Licensed Practical Nurse use this information?
***MUST BE APA 7 EDITION CITATION, 2PGS MINIUM. PLEASE USE ATTATCHMENT OR CONTENT BELOW TO CITE SOURCES****
Brenda Cherry, Yolanda Powell-Young and Joyce Newman Giger
Transcultural Nursing, 8, 159-207
Open reading mode
After reading this chapter, the nurse will be able to:
1. Identify ways in which the African-American culture influences African-American individuals and their health-seeking behaviors.
2. Recognize the need for an in-depth understanding of variables that are common within and across cultural groups to provide culturally appropriate nursing care when working with African-Americans.
3. Recognize physical and biological variances that exist within and across African-American groups to provide culturally appropriate nursing care.
4. Develop a sensitivity and an understanding for communication differences evidenced within and across African-American groups to avoid stereotyping and to provide culturally appropriate nursing care.
5. Develop a sensitivity and an understanding for psychological phenomena that influence the functioning of an African-American when providing nursing care.
Open full size image
In a time when people are seeking to become more culturally aware, it is important to note distinctions in terminology regarding cultural groups. This is certainly true of African-Americans. Some African-American individuals and groups are encouraging the use of the term Black Americans, whereas others are encouraging the use of the term African-Americans . The term African-Americans is used to refer to a cultural heritage that is a combination of African and American. On the other hand, the term Black Americans is believed to place more focus on biological racial identity than on cultural heritage. The term African-Americans is used in this book except in instances where its descriiptive characteristic is inappropriate, for example, Black skin, Black race, non-Black, Black English, and Black dialect. We have chosen these terms because they are now commonly used in the literature.
Overview of African-Americans
According to the U.S. Census Bureau, there are approximately 40,695,277 African-Americans residing in the United States, representing approximately 14.4% of the American population ( U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, American Community Survey, 2017 ). Of the number of African-Americans residing in this country, 54.8% live in the South, 18.8% live in the Midwest, 17.6% live in the Northeast, and 8.8% live in the West ( U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Census, American Community Survey, 2017 ). Although African-Americans live throughout the United States, the states with the greatest number of African-Americans are New York (3,362,736), California (2,451,453), Texas (2,898,143), Florida (2,916,174), and Georgia (2,907,944) ( U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, American Community Survey, 2017 ).
The cities with the most African-Americans are metropolitan New York City (3,362,616), Atlanta (1,707,913) Chicago (1,645,993), Detroit (980,451), Philadelphia (1,241,780), Houston (1,025,775), Memphis (414,928), and Dallas-Fort Worth (961,871) ( U.S. Census Bureau, Bureau of the Census, American Community Survey, 2017 ). In 2017, African-Americans represented more than 50% of the total population in 10 U.S. cities: Gary, Indiana (84.0%), Detroit (82.8%), Birmingham, Alabama (73.5%), Jackson, Mississippi (70.6%), New Orleans (67.3%), Baltimore (64.3%), Atlanta (61.4%), Memphis (61.4%), Washington, DC (60.0%), and Richmond, Virginia (57.2%) ( U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, American Community Survey, Brief on the Black Population, 2017 ).
In 2015, the median age of African-Americans residing in the United States was 33.7 years, compared with 35.3 years for the rest of the general population ( U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, American Community Survey, 2017 ). This is up from 29.2 years of age in 1990 and 30.2 years of age in 2000. African-American men have a lower mean age than African-American women (29.62 versus 33.7 years). In 2015, only 8.4% of African-Americans were 65 years of age or older, compared with 14% of their White counterparts and 13% of the rest of the general population. The number of African-Americans 65 years of age or older was 4,265,476 in 2010 (up from 2.5 million in 2000). It is interesting to note that in 2010 African-American women dominated the older age groups (62% versus 38% for their male counterparts). It is believed that the disproportionately low number of African-American males 65 years of age or older is a result of the higher mortality for African-American males ( U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, American Community Survey, 2017 ; U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, The Older Population in the United States, 2018 ). Where age is concerned, an interesting phenomenon is thought to occur for African-Americans and is referred to as the mortality crossover (“crossover phenomenon”). This phenomenon is thought to occur in African-Americans, and particularly African-American women at about 85 years of age. Many researchers postulate that the mortality for Blacks at this age is lower than that for Whites for the first time in the lifespan ( LaVist, 2005 ).
In 2010, 84.1% of African-Americans 25 years of age or older held at least a high school diploma, compared with 91.6% of their White counterparts. In 2015, only 12.8% of African-Americans 25 years of age or older held a bachelor’s degree or higher, which is down from 16.4% in 2000, compared with 21% for their White counterparts. Of the African-American males 25 years of age or older, 424,000 had less than a ninth-grade education; 1,178,000 had less than a high school degree with 9 to 12 years of education; 3,923,000 were high school graduates; 2,714,000 held an associate’s degree or had some college; 1,169,000 held a bachelor’s degree; and 610,000 held a graduate or professional degree. In contrast, of the African-American females 25 years of age or older, 544,000 had less than a ninth-grade education; 1,455,000 had less than a high school degree with 9 to 12 years of education; 4,086,000 were high school graduates; 3,906,000 held an associate’s degree or had some college; 1,709,000 held a bachelor’s degree; and 880,000 held graduate or equivalency or a professional degree ( U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, American Community Survey, 2017 ).
Historical account of African-Americans
From the sixteenth to the nineteenth centuries, more than 10 million Africans were brought to the United States and bonded into slavery ( Smith et al., 2015 ). In the classic work of Ploski